The electric motor works on the interaction between the motor’s magnetic field and electric current. Which can be powered by a direct current (DC) source or by an alternating current (AC) source.
Type of Current an Electric Vehicle Use
We all know that an electric vehicle generally has an onboard rechargeable storage unit. Typically a lithium-ion battery works as a source of power for an electric motor that brings the vehicle in motion. The electric vehicle mainly depends on batteries and the motor used in it.
An electric vehicle generally comes with lithium-ion batteries which allow electricity to store in chemical form. Lithium-ion batteries have high power density, high energy density, and a long life span as compared with others.
Motor EV is something that converts electrical energy from the batteries to mechanical energy. The motor transfers this mechanical energy to the wheels of electric vehicles and turns them through the cogwheel. But what motor does an electric vehicle use.
This is the most important part of every electric vehicle. In Electric Vehicle AC or DC, any kind of motor can be used. Both have some advantages and some disadvantages.
AC motor or alternating current motor is a three-phase motor that is powered by 240 volts of alternating current. Motors are widely used by EV manufacturers, particularly for high-performance vehicles. AV motors are further divided into two categories that are induction motor and synchronous motor.
Induction motors are cost-effective, low maintenance, and reliable motor among the two. Tesla motor vehicles have induction motors within vehicles. Synchronous motors are not like induction motors in which the rotor turns at a slower speed than that of the magnetic field. In a synchronous motor both rotor and magnetic field turn at the same speed. In AC installation any three-phase AC industrial motor can be used, which is convenient in terms of availability, motor size, shape, and power.
The most exciting feature of an AC motor is that it turns into a generator that delivers the power back to the batteries of an electric vehicle. But an electric car, bus, two-wheelers. And other vehicles, with AC motor, require an inverter that converts DC to AC. Because of the source of power is a battery (battery supplies direct current), and motor require alternating current.
A direct current motor (DC) can run on anything between 96 to 192 volts. DC motors are further classified into three categories that are, brushed DC motor, brushless DC motor, and stepper. Electric vehicle manufacturers widely use a brushed DC motor. DC motors are easy to install and are less expensive than an AC motor.
DC motor has higher starting torque, quick starting and stopping, reversing, and variable speeds with voltage input when compared to an AC motor.
You can also overdrive them for a shorter period that is for a shorter period you may experience 5 times more power than its rated horsepower. For example, a 20,000 watt may accept 100,000 watts but only for a shorter period. A DC motor develops more heat than an AC motor.
Because the motor is the main part of the electric vehicle. So according to the type of motor used in EV, We can define either it is DC or AC. However allElectric vehicle manufacturers use both AC motors and DC motors simultaneously.
TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
HEVs Hybrid Electric Vehicles
The hybrid electric vehicle has both a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric-powered propulsion system. HEVs use both petrol and electricity as power, HEVs startup using an electric motor then the petrol engine takes over as the speed rises.
In this the batteries are charged by its regenerative braking system, this system is a mechanism that recovers the energy by slowing down a moving vehicle, which converts kinetic energy into electrical energy, which is stored in batteries or supercapacitors, or the energy is directly used by the motor in some vehicles.
Both the Internal combustion engine and electric motor are controlled by computer software which ensures the best fuel economy and leads to fewer tailpipe emissions as compared to traditional vehicles with an internal combustion engine.
PHEVs Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
We can say Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle is a combination of both the Hybrid electric vehicle and battery electric vehicle, it combines an internal combustion engine with a battery-powered motor like a hybrid vehicle whose batteries can be charged by plugging into an external source of electric power.
The plug-in hybrid vehicle also uses the regenerative braking system for recharging batteries by plugging in an external source of electricity. Because of the plug-in rechargeable system, the operating cost of PHEVs reduces as charging from the grid might cost less than charging of batteries from an onboard generator.
PHEVs can run longer only on electricity when charged full than HEVEs which extend the range of the vehicle which ultimately leads to fuel economy and less emission by a vehicle.
BEVs/AEVs Battery Electric Vehicles/All-Electric Vehicles
BEVs battery electric vehicles are also called all-electric vehicles or only EVs or pure electric vehicles. The electric vehicle has onboard batteries whose power is used to operate the electric motor with no other secondary fuel engine (internal combustion engine).
The vehicle store the electricity in chemical form in high-capacity batteries or supercapacitors present onboard thus not requiring any fuel tank or fuel cell. Unlike the traditional internal combustion engine, BEVs run with zero emission and no other harm to the environment.
The range of an all-electric vehicle depends on the vehicle but the average range of vehicle available in the market is 200 km and few luxury and performance vehicle has a range of 450 km.
BEVs are completely powered by batteries onboard, which are charged from external sources with the help of special chargers, and the charging speed is dependent on the type of charger. The chargers are classified by the speed of charging.